Vehicle registration and inspection are separate processes. In Texas, the Department of Motor Vehicles (TXDMV) oversees the vehicle titling and registration process and the Department of Public Safety supervises the inspection program.
Texas has both a safety inspection program and an emissions (I/M) program. If you present your vehicle for inspection in one of the emissions counties it will receive a safety & emissions test.
Once the vehicle passes inspection, an inspection certificate will be affixed to the windshield and the owner will be given a form VI-30. The VI-30 form is required by the Texas DMV for registration.